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【神経科学】脳が完成するまでに「生き残る」回路と「刈り込まれる」回路との違いを解明



1: すらいむ ★ 2021/03/09(火) 18:22:18.12 ID:CAP_USER
【プレスリリース】脳が完成するまでに「生き残る」回路と「刈り込まれる」回路との違いを解明

学校法人 東京女子医科大学

Point
○ 脳は生まれた時点では未成熟で、完成するまでの過程でシナプスの選別と刈り込みが行われます。
そこで、実際の選別が起こる前の段階で、将来生き残るシナプスと刈り込まれるシナプスがどのように異なるのかを調べました。

○ 同じ神経細胞にシナプスを形成していても、将来生き残るシナプスは選別前から徐々に強くなるのに対し、将来刈り込まれるシナプスは未熟なままであることを突き止めました。
将来生き残るシナプスの発達を制限しても、その代わりに刈り込まれるシナプスが発達するようになるわけではないことが分かりました。

○ 今回の発見はシナプスの選別の根本的理解に迫るもので、脳の発達過程や精神神経疾患の理解へとつながることが期待されます。

Ⅰ 研究の背景と経緯
我々の脳機能は、シナプスと呼ばれる繋ぎ目を介して神経細胞同士が情報をやり取りすることによって成り立っています。
神経細胞同士の配線(神経回路)は生後初期段階では未完成であり、発達に伴って徐々に完成していきます。
この過程においてシナプスはまず過剰に創生され、その後の生育環境や経験に応じて必要なシナプスと不要なシナプスに選別されます。
必要なシナプスが選別されて生き残り、不要なシナプスが刈り込まれることによって脳は精密な神経回路として成熟します。
このシナプスの選別と刈り込みがうまくいかないと脳の情報処理に不具合が生じ、自閉症や統合失調症などにもつながると考えられています。

(以下略、続きはソースでご確認下さい)

東京女子医大 2021年03月09日
http://www.twmu.ac.jp/univ/news/detail.php?kbn=1&ym=202103&cd=847

引用元: ・【神経科学】脳が完成するまでに「生き残る」回路と「刈り込まれる」回路との違いを解明 女子医大 [すらいむ★]

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